The impact of the quota based immigration
While James was born in St. Although Herbert Hoover defeated Al Smith ina number of scholars have attributed the shift from the Republican dominance of the government in the s to the New Deal coalition of the s to the increasing share, turnout, and partisanship of the urban ethnic vote following several decades of mass immigration Andersen ; Baltzell ; Clubb and Allen ; Degler ; Lubell Immigration, especially clandestine immigration, is higher in the United States than in most other industrial countries, but the underlying dynamics are common to almost all industrial societies Hirschman In Maythere were three days of rioting in Kensington, an Irish suburb of Philadelphia, which culminated in the burning of two Catholic churches and other property.
The Immigration and Nationality Act included the first quotas, though small, allowing immigrants from Asian nations, and created a preference system among quota visas that included highly skilled workers for the first time. In the midrange scenario, it would increase to 22 years and 3 months, and in the high-end scenario it would increase to 24 years and 5 months. Waits for specific nationalities will grow even more disproportionate under current trends. Whereas in the s, more than half of all immigrants were Europeans and just 6 percent were Asians, by the s only 16 percent were Europeans and 31 percent were of Asian descent, while the percentages of Latino and African immigrants had also jumped significantly. The waits are so long that many people waiting for green cards will die before they can even apply. Though the hemisphere quotas were dropped in the following decade Martin, The unintended legacy of immigration reform Paradoxical as it may seem, US immigration policy often has very little to do with trends and patterns of immigration. Meanwhile, the waits for spouses and minor children of legal permanent residents F2A actually declined. Perhaps it is not so surprising that the Statue of Liberty has become the pre-eminent national symbol of the United States Kasinitz In October , the date for this category was January 1, , meaning that immigrants applying for green cards in that category had, at that time, waited only about 12 years. There were no quotas for Asia, because immigration from most countries there already was prohibited through other restrictions imposed in and expanded in later decades. Congress had decided that preserving the racial composition of the country was more important than promoting good ties with Japan. These restrictions did not apply to spouses, parents, and children of US citizens, however. Clubb and Howard W. Passing the national origins quotas in the early s was intended to exclude everyone from Asia and Africa and to sharply lower the numbers of arrivals from southern and eastern Europe.
It did not, however, establish quotas of any kind for residents of the Western Hemisphere. However, high levels of immigration characterized most of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as well as the first two decades of the twentieth.
In the decades following the World War II era, white Protestants, and especially middle class white Protestants outside the South, have been the base of the Republican Party, while Catholic and Jewish voters have been disproportionately Democratic.
The recent decline in immigration coincided with the economic downturn in the U. Congress did not act on those recommendations, but in it did approve a commission proposal for separate quotas for refugees Martin, Massey et al.
based on 20 review