Literature review on strategic communcation
Linguistics and communicative competence. On the other hand, Tarone presents five major types: avoidance, paraphrase, conscious transfer, appeal for assistance and mime. Faerch, et al.
Ghelichli, Y. A method for measuring the attrition of communicative competence: A pilot study with Spanish L3 subjects.
Definition of literature review by famous authors
Canale, M. Gass, K. Computer-assisted classroom discussion in the foreign language classroom: Conversation in slow motion. Computer-Mediated negotiated interaction: An expanded model. Communication strategies employed by American students of Russian, Modern Language Journal, 63 , Poulisse and Schills worked with three different groups of learners characterized as advanced, intermediate and beginning learners of English. In second language learning, communicative competence has been studied by different scholars such as Selinker , Tarone , Faerch and Kasper , Poulisse et. Kasper, G. Thus, they defined CSs as: Potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents as a problem in reaching particular communicative goal. Negotiation of meaning in nonnative speaker-nonnative speaker synchronous discussions. Canale later added another component to the model which is the discourse competence concerns how a speaker selects, sequences and arranges words into a unified spoken or written text. Newmark, L. It is claimed that learners may improve their competence skills by developing and shaping an ability for using specific CSs to compensate for their target language deficiency Bialystok, ; Dornyei, Applied Linguistics, 10 3 ,
How not to interfere with language teaching, in Brumfit, C. In other words, communication is defined as a process in which a message is sent from a sender to a receiver.
Taxonomies of CSs The taxonomies of CSs vary depending on whether the focus is on the produced verbal interaction Tarone, , ; Faerch and Kasper, ; Yule and Tarone, or on the cognitive process of selecting CSs Bialystok and Frohlich, ; kellerman and Bialystok, ; Poulisse, The subjects were tested individually across three oral tasks: 1 picture description; 2 story-retelling task, and 3 a twenty minutes interview with a native speaker of English. Avoidance a Topic avoidance b Message abandonment 2. NY: Longman. Crymes Eds. Ammari points out that: Corder draws the attention to the difficulty faced by the speakers' insufficient knowledge of the target language. Two Perspectives in Analyzing Communication Strategies. He questioned European Scientific Journal September edition vol.
Lee, J. Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. A total of thirty Dutch secondary school students; 15 junior high school students, 15 high school students and fifteen Dutch university students of English participated in the study.
Dornyei and Thurrell concluded that advanced level proficient learners use more achievement strategies when compared to less proficient learners.
Language structure and language function.
Foreign Language Annals, 29 3— Japan: Keisuisha Press.
based on 94 review