The only routine maintenance needed is on the preliminary treatment cleaning of screens and removal of sandroutine checking of pipes, weirs and other hydraulic structures, and removal of unwanted vegetation growth in embankments.
A large bloom will be evident by an obnoxious, pig-pen odor. This minimizes maintenance and does not require a lot of operating attention. Organic matter in the wastewater is broken down by aerobic bacteria and oxygen found in the pond.
These ponds are only included in the treatment line when high efficiencies of pathogen removal are required, either for discharge of the treated effluent in surface water bodies, or for use for irrigation or aquaculture. In many countries and regions ponds are the most widely used treatment process.
Ponds require very little maintenance, since there is no heavy electric or mechanical equipment that requires attention.
A suitable topography and a suitable soil structure are also desired, in order to reduce construction costs. Stabilization ponds provide secondary biological treatment and are the most commonly used wastewater pond.
The sludge comprising the sediment layer in the pond undergoes anaerobic digestion, and may accumulate for several years without needing removal. It needs to be removed only in the interval of several years. It is the shallowest of the ponds, ensuring that sunlight penetrates the full depth for photosynthesis to occur.
More organic matter requires more oxygen. This type of treatment system meets the needs of many small or rural communities due to low construction costs as well minimal operation and maintenance requirements. Oxygen is used by the microorganisms to stabilize organic matter.